Neutrality


Module 3 – Neutrality Types

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“…models of neutrality vary in practice…The following is intended only as a general descriptive definition on terms…:”

“Permanent Neutrality:

Perpetual by:

(a) legal act – legal status of military non-alliance in peacetime and non-participation in war, except for the purpose of legitimate defense, codified in international law and guaranteed or approved by a treaty arrangement involving the neutral state and external powers. (e.g. Switzerland)

(b) tradition – unilaterally proclaimed policy of military non-alliance in peacetime aiming to remain neutral in case of war, recognized de facto by the international community. (e.g. Sweden)

Neutralization:

Term used to emphasize the internal political and legal aspect in establishing the permanent neutrality of a particular country or regionan, including great power dissociation and disengagement (e.g. Austria, Belgium)

Occasional ad hoc Neutrality:

Legal institution inscribed in internal law based on a declaration of intent and commitment to non-partisanship and non-participation in a concrete instance of war.

Neutralism:

General term denoting the resolve to abstain from the participation in military alliances (sometimes used interchangeably with non-alignment; the term was especially in popular use in the 1950s to mark militant Third World resistance to great power dominance and Cold War polarization (positive neutrality); its declared aims were the mainenance of peace, the preservation of autonomy and independence, and the speeding of of the process of decolonization.

Non-Alignment:

Contemporary movement of developng small and medium-sized countries with a membership of a majority of the UN states determined not to join military alliances and to keep out of the East-West confrontation; its aims to secure peace, to bolster political and economic independence, to oppose neo-colonialism and to democratize international relations; a cardinal goal is the establishment of a just New Economic Order.  There are various nuances in consistency and resolution as far as the implementation of these aims is concerned.”

 

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